‘La donna nella resistenza’ (Women in Resistance)

9 May 1965

(ID Teca: D3117) This documentary - signed by the then young director Liliana Cavani, destined to a great career - starts from the farewell letter written to her loved ones by the partisan from Bologna, Irma Bandiera, and then provides, through the narrator, some data on the female contribution to the Resistance. Valuable interviews of some of these militants follow on the reasons that led them to take action. The documentary aired on Channel Two on 9th of May 1965, in the 20th anniversary of the Liberation (1965 was a central year to the memory of the Resistance).

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Indro Montanelli and the war in Ethiopia: the child wife

Estratto della celebre intervista al giornalista Indro Montanelli riguardo il suo “matrimonio” con una bambina eritrea ai tempi della guerra in Etiopia, all’interno del programma “L’ora della verità” nel ’69, scontrandosi con l’attivista femminista Elvira Banotti.

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Historiography

L’Italia contemporanea (1918-1948, Contemporary Italy)
Mussolini il rivoluzionario (Mussolini the revolutionary)
L’organizzazione dello stato totalitario (The organization of the totalitarian state)
Storia delle origini del fascismo, vol. 1 (History of the origins of fascism)

Culture and politics

Government Tambroni

Government Tambroni

A single-party government, led by the Christian Democrat Fernando Tambroni, is born, supported by the votes of the Italian Social Movement, the neo-fascist party born in 1946 for direct inspiration from the experience of the Italian Social Republic. A wave of street protests broke out in the country, especially in Genova and Reggio Emilia, where the police fired on the crowd, killing 5 protesters (including some former partisans). In the same year, the military Prosecutor General Enrico Santacroce ordered the "provisional filing" of 695 case files containing investigative documents on killings and massacres committed by Nazis and Fascists during the period 1943-1945.

The film “March to Rome”

The film “March to Rome”

Dino Risi’s film "Marcia su Roma" is released in cinemas, starring Ugo Tognazzi and Vittorio Gassmann. This is the first comic and farcical reading of the rise to power of fascism through the story of two veterans, who reject the logic of violence at the last minute. Compared to the self-exclusive reading of fascism, based on the myth of the "Italian good people", Risi returns the parable of two disappointed fighters, two anti-heroes of the “squadrismo”, reversing the rhetoric of the march on Rome celebrated in the twenty years as revolution, the founding act of the seizure of regime power.

The “Republic born of the Resistance”

The “Republic born of the Resistance”

With his speech held on the twentieth anniversary of the Liberation, 9 of May 1965, the President of the Republic Giuseppe Saragat inaugurates a policy of memory focused on the exaltation of anti-fascism as a unified feature of national history and speaks of "Republic born of the Resistance", putting an end to that challenge of legitimacy of the partisan struggle that had marked the years of opposition between the DC and the left parties, during the centrist governments.

Massacre of Piazza Fontana

Massacre of Piazza Fontana

On 12th December in Milan, at the headquarters of the National Bank of Agriculture in Piazza Fontana, a bomb killed 16 people and injured 98.  The massacre, linked to similar bomb attacks that occurred on the same day in Rome, is the first link in a long chain of neo-fascist terrorist attacks that will bloody Italy in the seventies. In the collective imagination Piazza Fontana marks the beginning of the "night of the Republic".