‘La straordinaria storia dell’Italia’ (‘The extraordinary history of Italy’ ep.10, The catastrofy)

11 September 1991

(Teca ID: not available) This little-known drama stages the conversation between Mussolini and King Vittorio Emanuele III which took place in the residence of the sovereign, Villa Savoia, the day after the session of the Grand Council of Fascism on 25th July 1943 - following such conversation Mussolini will be deposed and arrested by the king. The sequence carries on with a speech by the historian Claudio Pavone, who in 1991 published his important essay “A Civil War” and that reflects precisely on the use of this term for the events of '43-'45, interviewed by Francesco Malgeri, also a historian.

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Historiography

L’opinione degli italiani sotto il regime 1929-1943 (The opinion of the Italians under the 1929-1943 regime)
Le donne nel regime fascista (Women in the fascist regime)
La via italiana al totalitarismo. Il partito e lo Stato nel regime fascista (The Italian way to totalitarianism. The party and the state in the fascist regime)
Il delitto Matteotti (The Matteotti crime)
La repubblica delle camicie nere. I combattenti, i politici, gli amministratori, i socializzatori (The Republic of Black Shirts. Fighters, politicians, administrators, socializers)

Culture and politics

Fascist legacy

Fascist legacy

Gianfanco Fini, leader of Alleanza Nazionale, celebrates the 70th anniversary of the March on Rome and define Mussolini "the greatest statesman of the century". In the name of a reconciled past, some centre-right administrations promote a new toponymy in various Italian cities with squares, streets, public buildings named after the “martyrs of the phobes”. In the same year Rai bought the BBC documentary Fascist legacy, about Italian war crimes in Ethiopia and Yugoslavia, which was translated into Italian but was never broadcast. Italian viewers will see it on La7, within a program directed by the historian Sergio Luzzatto, soon deleted from the schedule.

Mancino Law

Mancino Law

the Parliament approves Law 205/1993, known as the Mancino Law, which punishes by imprisonment (from 6 months to 4 years) anyone who commits violent acts on racial, ethnic, national or religious grounds, imposing harsh sanctions for the propaganda of ideas based on superiority or racial hatred as well as inciting discrimination. The law condemns, in particular, gestures, actions and slogans linked to the fascist ideology and prohibits any organization, association, movement or group whose aims include inciting discrimination or violence. Among the first effects of the law, the dissolution of the Western Political Movement, a far-right organization founded in 1984 by Maurizio Boccacci. In 2014 the “Lega” proposes a referendum to repeal the law stating it's a liberticidal law.

The “closet of shame”

The “closet of shame”

Deputy Mirko Tremaglia presents a draft law to the Chamber of Deputies to rehabilitate former RSI fighters and make them equivalent to effective members of the Armed Forces. In the same year, the "cabinet of shame" was found in the premises of Palazzo Cesi in Rome, the headquarters of the Military General Prosecutor’s Office, containing 695 judicial files with investigative material on Nazi-fascist crimes, illegally covered up in 1960. The discovery gave rise to numerous investigations at military prosecutors, followed by trials and convictions, with life imprisonment in absentia against Nazi criminals and the establishment of a parliamentary commission of inquiry in May 2003. Thanks to the discovery of the files, in 2004, in La Spezia the proceedings begin against those responsible for the massacre of Sant'Anna di Stazzema (560 civilians massacred on 12th August 1944), one of the great massacres of Italians who remained unpunished.

The crimes of the fascist wars

The crimes of the fascist wars

In February, the Ministry of Defence admitted the use of gas by the Italian armed forces during the Ethiopian War. The recognition puts an end to the controversy between the journalist Indro Montanelli and the historian Angeli Del Boca, who was the first to document and denounce the use of mustard gas against civilian populations during the fascist colonial campaigns in Libya and Ethiopia. The result is a new season of historiographical studies on the criminal conduct of the fascist wars, in particular on the Italian occupation in the Balkans, which overturns the stereotype of the "good Italian" focusing on the participation of fascists in German reprisals, on the fascist concentration camps for the Yugoslavs, on the story of the war criminals demanded by Yugoslavia, Greece, Albania, Ethiopia, the Soviet Union never handed over and put on trial in Italy for their crimes.

The “reconciliation”

The “reconciliation”

In his inaugural speech, the President of the Chamber Luciano Violante invites to reflect on the "yesterday’s losers" in an effort to understand "the reasons that fifty years ago saw the Italians divide between the Resistance and the Republic of Salò and the reasons for which thousands of boys, when all was lost, sided with Salò and not with rights and freedoms". The speech opens a series of proposals for "reconciliation", coming from the very ranks of the left.

National day deported

National day deported

A draft law is presented in the Senate (speaker sen. Anna Maria Bucciarelli, Dems Ulivo) for the "establishment of a national day dedicated to all those deported to concentration camps during the war 1939-1945", proposing 16 October, day of the raid of 1943 in the ghetto of Rome. The proposal ends a year later in the Senate.

Ciampi and the politics of memory

Ciampi and the politics of memory

The President of the Republic Carlo Azeglio Ciampi inaugurates a new policy of memory and a new civil pedagogy focused on the myth of the Risorgimento and the Resistance. Ciampi’s attempt is to reconstruct the national fabric, deeply torn by the political crisis experienced by the country after Tangentopoli, and to counteract the memory anti-renaissance and anti-unification, coming from the Lega.